Influenced by western literary traditions, writers in this period started producing literary works addressing the contemporary social problems,[297] while many others continued to enrich Nepali poetic traditions with authentic Nepali poetry. [202] The distribution of wealth among the Nepalis is consistent with that in many developed and developing countries: the highest 10% of households control 39.1% of the national wealth and the lowest 10% control only 2.6%. It remains firmly committed to the One China Policy, and is known to curb anti-China activities from the Tibetan refugees in Nepal. Family values are important in the Nepali tradition, and multi-generational patriarchal joint families have been the norm in Nepal, though nuclear families are becoming common in urban areas. Declaring Nepal as a federal, democratic republican state upon duly abolishing the monarchy. Violent incidents began to occur on the eve of the strike. Parts of northern Nepal were intertwined with the culture of Tibet. Nepal appears in ancient Indian literary texts dated as far back as the fourth century BC. Some former territories had been lost due to the kingdom having participated in the Sino-Nepalese War which ended in both victory and loses, ultimately accepting as a tribute state of Qing dynasty of China from 1792 to 1865. Nepal contains a disproportionately large diversity of plants and animals, relative to its size. It is mainly in the Himalayas, but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain. [60][48], Factionalism inside the royal family led to a period of instability. [41] Another possibility for the first people to have inhabited Nepal are the Kusunda people. Constitution of Nepal 2015 (Nepali Name:नेपालको संविधान २०७२) is the present governing Constitution of Nepal. Literary works, which were written in Sanskrit by Brahmin priests educated and sometimes also based in Varanasi, included religious texts and other fantasies involving kings, gods and demons. As a result, many witnesses to this repression became radicalized. [162], Nepal emphasises greater cooperation in South Asia and actively pushed for the establishment of SAARC, the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, the permanent secretariat of which, is hosted in Kathmandu. In the western region, rivers which were too strong to be hampered, cut some of the world's deepest gorges. [344][345] Nepali sports is hindered by a lack of infrastructure,[346] funding,[340] corruption, nepotism and political interference. The CPN (UML) and the Nepali Congress negotiated to form a consensus government, and Sushil Koirala of the Nepali Congress was elected as prime minister. [184] Nepal has been a member of WTO since 23 April 2004. According to the concept of a federal system, Nepal has been divided into 7 provinces, 77 districts and 753 local levels. [1] The Anglo-Nepalese War ended in British victory and ceded some Nepalese territory. [267] Contraceptive prevalence rate is 53% but the disparity rate between rural and urban areas is high due to a lack of awareness and easy access. [e] Himal is the mountain region containing snow and situated in the Great Himalayan Range; it makes up the northern part of Nepal. Minority ethnic groups like Madhesi and Tharu protested vigorously against the constitution which came into effect on 20 September 2015. [226][227][228] Nepal's electrification rate (76%) is comparable to that of other countries in the region but there is significant disparity between the rural (72%) and urban (97%) areas. [11]Stella Kramrisch ( 1964 ) mentions a substratum of a race of Pre - Dravidians and Dravidians , who were in Nepal even before the Newars , who formed the majority of the ancient inhabitants of the valley of Kathmandu.[12]. By the 18th century, the Gorkha Kingdom achieved the unification of Nepal. [224] Only about 1% of the energy need is fulfilled by electricity. By the 14th century, the empire had splintered into loosely associated Baise rajyas, literally 22 states as they were counted. [65][66], In 1996, the Maoist Party started a violent bid to replace the royal parliamentary system with a people's republic. [5] According to the 2011 census, Nepal's population was 26.5 million, almost a threefold increase from nine million in 1950. [225] Major hydro-power projects suffer delays and setbacks. The districts, in turn, comprise local units known as urban and rural municipalities. The martyrs are the symbols of patriotism. For many other groups, men's traditional dresses consist of a shirt or a vest, paired with a dhoti, kachhad or lungi. Temples to the north of the temple of Pashupatinath were renovated in this period. It was the worst natural disaster to strike the country since the 1934 Nepal–Bihar earthquake. [127] In the partyless Panchayat system initiated in 1962 by King Mahendra, monarchy loyalists took turns leading the government; political leaders remained underground, exiled or in prison. [156] Relations between India and Nepal, though very close, is "fraught with difficulties stemming from geography, economics, the problems inherent in big power-small power relations, and common ethnic, linguistic and cultural identities that overlap the two countries' borders". In addition to military support, Nepal contributed guns, equipment as well as hundreds of thousand of pounds of tea, sugar and raw materials such as timber to the Allied war effort. According to the Gopal genealogy, the Lichhavis established their rule in Nepal by defeating the last Kirati King 'Khigu', 'Galiz' according to the language-genealogy and 'Gasti' according to Wright genealogy. ", Garzilli, Enrica, "A Sanskrit Letter Written by Sylvain Lévi in 1923 to Hemarāja Śarmā Along With Some Hitherto Unknown Biographical Notes (Cultural Nationalism and Internationalism in the First Half of the 21st Cent. [160] China is viewed favourably in Nepal owing to the absence of any border disputes or serious interference in internal politics, coupled with its assistance in infrastructure development and aid during emergencies; favourability has increased since China helped Nepal during the 2015 economic blockade imposed by India. However, an absolute chronology can not be established, as even the oldest texts may contain anonymous contributions dating as late as the early modern period. A major aftershock occurred on 12 May 2015 at 12:50 NST with a moment magnitude (Mw) of 7.3, killing more than 200 people and over 2,500 were injured by this aftershock, and many were left homeless. [209] The number of international visitors crossed one million in 2018 for the first time (not counting Indian tourists arriving by land). [169] An almost exclusively ground infantry force, Nepal Army numbers at less than one hundred thousand;[170][171][172] recruitment is voluntary. The Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) established a provisional "people's government" at the district level in several locations. Urbanization rate is high in the Terai, doon valleys of the inner Terai and valleys of the middle hills, but low in the high Himalayas. It is possible that the Dravidian people whose history predates the onset of the bronze age in the Indian subcontinent (around 3300 BC) inhabited the area before the arrival of other ethnic groups like the Tibeto-Burmans and Indo-Aryans from across the border. European Union (EU) (46.13%), the US (17.4%), and Germany (7.1%) are its main export partners; they mainly buy Nepali ready-made garments (RMG). 2 in particular. [155] Nepal and India share an open border with free movement of people, religious, cultural and marital ties. This division led the Malla rulers into internecine clashes and wars for territorial and commercial gains. [302] In its more modern form, it has been used to cover the head, and sometimes the face, as a veil,[302] particularly in the Terai. The rivalry between Nepal and the British East India Company over the princely states bordering Nepal and British-India eventually led to the Anglo-Nepalese War (1814–16), in which Nepal suffered substantial losses due to lack of guns and ammunitions against the British-Indian forces with advanced weapons. [22], Norwegian indologist Christian Lassen had proposed that Nepāla was a compound of Nipa (foot of a mountain) and -ala (short suffix for alaya meaning abode), and so Nepāla meant "abode at the foot of the mountain". In the 1930s, a vibrant underground political movement rose in the capital, birthing Nepal Praja Parishad in 1936,[125] which was dissolved seven years later, following the execution of the four great martyrs. Reforms in 1990 established a multiparty democracy within the framework of a constitutional monarchy. [49] Ashoka also visited the Kathmandu valley and built monuments commemorating Gautam Buddha's visit there. King Prithvi Narayan Shah's victory march began with the conquest of Nuwakot, which lies between Kathmandu and Gorkha, in 1744. The Lichchhavis built monuments and left a series of inscriptions; Nepal's history of the period is pieced together almost entirely from them. [251] Though there is significant gender disparity in overall literacy rate,[5] girls have overtaken boys in enrolment to all levels of education. Now, all three tiers of elections have been accomplished in the country as per the Constitution. The traditional kurta suruwal is rarely worn by younger women, who increasingly favour jeans. [319], Football and cricket are popular professional sports. Destination Nepal, a virtual guide to the former Kingdom in the Himalayas between India and China. On 25 September 1768, as the people of Kathmandu were celebrating the festival of Indra Jatra, the Gorkhali army marched into the city. The history of Nepal is intertwined with the history of the broader Indian subcontinent and the surrounding regions, comprising the areas of South Asia and East Asia. Morever, the government stance to not hear any protest from other ethnic communities except Khas-Aryas ( Akhand pakshim) is outrageous and unilateral. [44] The Gopal Bansa was the oldest dynasty to be mentioned in various texts as the earliest rulers of the central Himalayan kingdom known by the name 'Nepal'. Bir Narsingh Kunwar emerged victorious and founded the Rana dynasty, and came to be known as Jung Bahadur Rana. Prithvi Narayan Shah sat on a throne put on the palace courtyard for the king of Kathmandu, proclaiming himself the king. Kwanti (sprouted beans soup), chhwela (ground beef), chatamari, (rice flour crepe), bara (fried lentil cake), kachila (marinated raw minced beef), samaybaji (centred around flattened rice), lakhaamari and yomuri are among the more widely recognised. 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